If I want to learn Greek for the purpose of understanding science etymology, which kind of Greek should I learn?

What Spyros Theodoritsis said. In addition, for medical terminology in particular, many of the words for parts of the body have changed in Modern Greek, and the ancient words only survive in… Greek medical terminology.

Modern Greek has replaced the word for liver with συκώτι, “figged”; it’s the same dish that gave us French foie. Nothing in Modern Greek will tell you that the word used in medicine is hepar, or that the compounds are formed with hepato-.

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