What is the difference between Chauvinism and Jingoism?

Mostly agree with Don Grushkin’s answer to What is the difference between Chauvinism and Jingoism? However, the nuance I get for jingoism is belligerence, not just boosterism. Chauvinism OTOH can be just passive-aggressive.

Moreover, chauvinism has extended from bigotry about one’s nation to other in-groups, predominantly males (“male chauvinist pig”)—although that sense still seems secondary to me. Jingoism has not undergone that extension.

Answered 2016-01-19 · Upvoted by

Don Grushkin, Ph.D. Cultural/Linguistic Anthropology, University of Arizona

What alphabets are not used in mathematics and why?

Not a mathematician, but:

Mathematics as practiced in the West is a European invention, and it calls for its symbols on European patrimony. That means:

  • Roman (italics, to differentiate from text)
  • Greek (avoiding Greek letters that look identical to Roman letters, such as omicron, and half the capitals)
  • Hebrew, because it’s the next closest prestigious alphabet to the European patrimony. Even that gets used very rarely: aleph and beth are infinity numbers, gimel is a function; is there anything else?

I’m not aware of any systematic or even ad hoc use of other scripts; Cyrillic would be the next candidate along.

Answers from actual mathematicians welcome. 🙂