Anon, I commend you on your initiative. I don’t commend you on your question topic tagging; hopefully you’ll get some responses better targeted than this now.
Learn Python, because Natural Language Toolkit.
Learn the Natural Language Toolkit.
Then get familiar with the techniques of Natural Language Processing. Which you can do via the Natural Language Toolkit. You’ll want to get into stemming. And lexical databases. And if you’re wanting to replicate what Google Translate does, statistical machine translation techniques.
By which time, you’ll have more targeted questions, which better informed individuals can help you out with.