Why are Greeks called Greek in English, Yunan in Turkish and Arabic, Ellines in Greek?

Thx for A2A.

The Wikipedia treatment of the topic, Names of the Greeks, is pretty damn good.

Basic story:

The Classical Greek term for Greeks, Hellenes, had not generalised until early Classical times. Before then, Greek tribes used local terms for themselves, and any peoples that came in touch with them would pick up those local terms, rather than Hellenes. Hence:

* Homer predates the generalisation of Hellenes, and his word for Greeks (who he contrasts with the non-Greek Trojans) is Achaeans. In Homer, the Hellenes themselves are only one Greek tribe; in later usage, so were the Achaeans. It is likely that the Hittites used a variant of Achaeans, Ahhiyawa, to refer to Greeks.
* The Persians were first in contact with the Ionian Greeks, so they called Greeks Yunan. Peoples of the Middle East who learned of the Greeks via the Persians, or whose cultural heritage came from those who did, stuck with that term.
* The peoples of Italy came to refer to Greeks as Graeci, possibly from the name of a tribe in Western Greece that they first contacted. Peoples who learned of the Greeks via the Etruscans (e.g. the Romans), or  whose cultural heritage came from those who did, stuck with that term.
* The Greeks themselves came to abandon the term Hellenes, which came to mean “pagan”, and used Rhomaioi “Romans” instead, because they belonged to the East Roman empire. The term Hellenes was revived in wide use in the 19th century.
* And so Wikipedia informs me, the Georgians call Greece Saberdzneti, from the Georgian word for wisdom.

What is written in those documents Page on www.keelpno.gr and  Page on www.keelpno.gr? It’s written in Greek and Google Translate doesn’t manage to translate it. I need it for an important factcheck, thank you!

PDF 1: The Centre for Control and Prevention of Diseases (KEELPNO) in the Ministry of Health is informing the public of a case of serious extended gastroenteritis in a Dutch tourist aged 79 who was staying in the island of Kos. Because of the severity of his condition he has been airlifted and hospitalised in the Intensive Care Unit of a private hospital in Athens. Because of the initial negative lab results, further examinations are underway to rule out the prospect of infectious gastroenteritis that could threaten public health. A team of KEELPNO scientists has gone to Kos to carry out further epidemiological investigation and find any possible further cases, in collaboration with the local authorities. While waiting for the final microbiological results, KEELPNO recommends that as with all outbreaks of infectious disease, people should carefully apply all hygienic measures around the consumption of water and food, and careful hand hygiene in all cases.

PDF 2: On the case of acute infectious gastroenteritis with serious complications of the Dutch Tourist, KEELPNO states that the initial lab check in the Central Laboratory of Public Health in Vari and the Regional Lab of Public Health in Thessaly has not confirmed the existence of the cholera bacterium. Lab investigations are continuing with further molecular checks. KEELPNO remains on alert to fully investigate the incident.

What is this greek dish?

Konstantinos Michailidis‘ and Alex Giannakakos‘ answer are the same. Kritharaki is Risoni (Orzo (pasta)), and Giouvetsi is meat with risoni.

On Stella pasta’s web site (Stella – Μακαρόνια), their risoni is advertised as Φτιάξτε ονειρεμένο γιουβέτσι για όλη την οικογένεια και πείτε «Stella κύριοι! Σας μιλάω εκ πείρας!»  (“Make a dreamy giouvetsi for the whole family and say ‘Stella gentlemen! I speak from experience.'”)  (“I speak from experience” is the slogan at the start of the poster.)

Love giouvetsi…

What does “opoulos” mean at the end of Greek names?

Literally, it comes from the word for “bird”, πουλί, which is originally from Latin. (There is a minority opinion that it comes from πώλος, “foal”.) The word has ended up being used as a diminutive, and Greek patronymic surnames are formed as diminutives. Diminutives in Greek vary by region, which means that you can tell someone’s region of ancestry from their surname.

opoulos is the default suffix and diminutive of the Peloponnese. Exceptionally, while Standard Modern Greek is based on the Peloponnese, –opoulos is not the default diminutive: –aki is (used in Central Greece). –opoulo is used more narrowly in Standard Modern Greek, though, to denote young animals (γουρουνόπουλο, “piglet”), and children of nationalities (εγκλεζόπουλο, “English kid”).

So Papadopoulos means “son of a priest”, as Konstantinos Konstantinides says, but originally παπαδόπουλο means “priestling”.