You can have an answer collapsed. (You are not notified of it unless it was for BNBR.)
You can get a BNBR warning on a comment or answer. If it’s on a comment, the comment gets deleted.
You can be edit-blocked. Initially for a week. For repeat offences, the period can be extended to a month, three months, or six months. Nick Nicholas’ answer to What does it mean to be edit-blocked or banned on Quora?
You can be banned.
Some of the time, your ban can be rescinded.
Some of the time, your ban can be reinstated.